It seems pretty basic, but people and organizations are embarrasingly bad at not recognizing when a problem exists, allowing a small problem to mature until it becomes a BIG problem, requiring large investments of both time and resources to resolve the issue. Simply stated, a problem exists any time actual performance is less than expected and the gap is big enough to be a concern to you. Once the performance "gap" is identified, it is important to determine the real or root cause of the problem--or problem solving efforts quickly become an exercise in futility.
Unfortunately, many people get enamored with complexity and their efforts to resolve a problem without knowing the real cause lead them to make changes that actually cover up or complicate the real problem. A headache (symptom) often responds to a quick solution (Ibuprofen). But if the cause of an on-going headache isn't identified (root cause analysis) all the pain medication in the world won't fix the real problem--a tumor.
Courageous critical thinkers don't hide their problems in a smoke screen of complexity.